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Classification and use of mineral fertilizers


The land, bestowing upon us generous harvests of fruits, vegetables, and cereals, is greatly depleted. Cultivated land - fields, gardening, household and dacha plots - do not have the opportunity to rest, restore their strength, maintain fertility. All this must be done by man, artificially introducing into the soil the organic and mineral elements that it has used up. Sources of these elements are organic and mineral fertilizers. We will talk about their classification and types in the garden later in our article.

Complex mineral fertilizers in gardening

The composition of a good fertile soil should include a certain amount of micro and macroelements that provide good nutrition, development and fruiting of plants growing on these soils. The absence of one or another useful substance, like a glut, has a very detrimental effect on the condition of crops and their productivity. To prevent this from happening, the soil and crops growing on it are fed with mineral supplements.

Mineral fertilizers are balanced mixtures of salts of minerals in the most accessible form for planting.

It often happens that the absence of only one element prevents the full absorption of other nutrients present in the soil in sufficient quantities. To fill the gap using complex mono-dressing. For example, sandy soils often need top dressing with magnesium, manganese is lacking on the black earth. For all crops, regardless of the soil of growth, nitrogen is vital.

Mineral fertilizers are needed in any garden.

Most importantly, the chemical composition of the salts and compounds that make up the mineral fertilizers is specially selected so that the plants easily absorb nutrients and react quickly to their presence. For each there are certain norms and terms of introduction, and what is exactly necessary for your land plot, you can determine by the condition and appearance of the landings, the quality of the soil, as well as the expected result.

Condition of plants and soil as an indicator of mineral deficiency

The basis of the nutrition of plant crops are nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus. It is these elements that most of all influence the active growth and harmonious development of fruit trees, shrubs, vegetables and flowers. And, accordingly, their lack of impact on the growing season and the appearance of trees and grasses.

Lack of nitrogen

As you know, nitrogen is the main element that ensures the growth of garden and garden crops throughout the vegetative cycle, and it can only be absorbed from the soil (78% of nitrogen in air inaccessible to plants).

Therefore it is necessary to constantly maintain the rate of nitrogen content in the soil. Its shortage is evident already at the very beginning of spring in the early stages of the development of crops, seedlings: too weak stems, small leaves, a very small number of inflorescences. Next, the lower leaves begin to lighten - first the veinlets, and then the tissues around them, gradually die off, and the next leaves weaken. The plant lacks the vital force for growth and formation of ovaries.

Due to a lack of nitrogen, plant leaves begin to weaken and turn yellow.

Potassium deficiency

It can be seen closer to the middle of vegetative development - the green mass acquires an unnatural turquoise-blue tint, the leaves become faded, the natural bright greens do not please the eye. Then brown spots appear on the edge of the sheet, the tissues gradually die off (dry out). The stems are thin and prone to lodging, growth is slow, the fruits are few and develop very poorly.

The leaves on the tomatoes, carrots get "curly", fruit trees bloom too much, but the fruits are small and ugly forms. Lack of potassium also affects the development of the root system. Most often acidic soils are poor in this element.

The leaves on the tomatoes, carrots get "curly", fruit trees bloom too much, but the fruits are small and ugly forms. Lack of potassium also affects the development of the root system. Most often acidic soils are poor in this element.

Leaf curl may indicate potassium deficiency.

Low phosphorus content

Symptoms resemble a lack of nitrogen: growth retardation, thin lifeless stem, late flowering and the formation of fruits, as well as their ripening, the fall of the lower leaves.

Only in contrast to nitrogen, the lack of phosphorus causes an unnatural darkening of the stems and leaves, their partial color in purple and burgundy shades. Phosphorus starvation also indicates increased acidity of the soil, and is most pronounced on tomatoes, black currants, apple trees, peaches.

Lack of phosphorus causes darkening of the leaves of plantings

Nitrogen, phosphate and potash fertilizers

All top dressing, obligatory for entering into the soil and under plants, can be divided into organic (fresh or rotted manure, compost, bird droppings) and mineral fertilizers. The latter, in turn, are divided into simple and complex.

Simple mineral remedies contain salts of only one necessary substance, in an easily digestible form of plants and usually well soluble in water:

  • Nitrogen: the most commonly used forms are sodium nitrate, calcium nitrate, alkaline dressing used on acidic soils), ammonium nitrate (acidic fertilizer for neutral and alkaline soils), urea (in the form of liquid dressing is quickly absorbed by the root system of plants and works very effectively);
  • potassium fertilizers in the form of potassium sulfate necessary for all garden and garden crops to increase resistance to typical diseases, frost and heat, as well as the accumulation of starch and sugar in fruits. The most acceptable form for plants is potassium sulphate. Potassium salt and potassium chloride contain a certain amount of harmful impurities; therefore, it is advisable to use it only in the autumn, so that by spring with snow a considerable part of harmful impurities should be washed out;
  • phosphate dressing required during flowering, the formation of ovaries ripening. Phosphoric flour, simple or double superphosphate is used on acidic soils, as they show positive properties only when they interact with acids. As auxiliary substances contain sulfur and gypsum, which neutralize acidic soils.
Complex mineral supplements consist of two or more components, may include a number of trace elements.

Naturally, it is much more profitable to use such balanced additives, immediately saturating the soil with a whole complex of useful substances. But the choice should be approached more carefully, having established exactly which elements your plants lack. The most common names are ammophos, nitrophoska, nitroammophoska, diammophoska. Instructions for use of these drugs are always printed on the packaging.

Phosphate flour - one of the types of mineral fertilizers

Dolomite flour and instructions for use

Dolomite flour - natural mineral fertilizer, which is obtained by grinding dolomite into the smallest flour. It includes such useful items as calcium and magnesium in the form of carbonates (calcium and magnesium salts CaCO3, MgCO3). This form fills with the missing nutrients, however, prevents their excessive accumulation in fruits and vegetables.

Dolomitic limestone flour, deoxidizing the soil, helps to assimilate also those elements that are already in it, but because of the increased acidity are inaccessible to plants, do not split. Flour belongs to a variety of mineral feeding.In addition, fertilizer has a negative effect on certain types of weeds and pests. The list of positive qualities of this deoxidizer is quite large:

  • improves chemical, physical and biological (contributes to the development of healthy microflora) soil structure;
  • contributes to a more complete absorption of useful substances when applying any other mineral fertilizers;
  • contributes to the formation of a stronger and developed root system of plants, its enhanced nutrition;
  • cleans plants from radionuclides;
  • helps to increase the keeping quality and safety of the crop;
  • destroys terrestrial insects, dissolving their chitin shell.
Another of the important advantages is a very low price and complete harmlessness to humans and other living organisms (except insects). To improve all the qualities of the soil, it is necessary to pour in the correct fertilizer from dolomite every year, preferably 2-3 weeks before the start of planting.
Dolomite flour destroys terrestrial insects by dissolving their chitin sheath

The value of making mineral supplements in the garden

Nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus are the most basic components for plant nutrition in horticulture: nitrogen makes them strong, strong; Potassium makes the fruit appetizing and beautiful, and phosphorus stimulates the growth of the root system. These dressings make the land fertile, allow you to constantly increase the yield of crops on the same cultivated soils. Very quickly, they help the plants to regain their strength, regain growth, bloom profusely and bear fruit. Therefore, their use is 100% justified.

Mineral fertilizers - food for garden crops, trees, berry bushes, vegetables, root crops in the country. We need to feed the earth so that it feeds us. And fertilize not only as needed, but always: in spring and autumn.